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In one follow-up of human Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) in the African country of Mauritania, the World Health Organization (WHO) reports a total of six confirmed cases, including two deaths as of March 14.
According to WHO, on February 4, 2022, a case of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) at the National Institute for Public Health Research in Nouakchott, Mauritania. The patient is a 52-year-old farmer living in the department (moughataa) of Koubeni in the region (wilaya) of Hodh Elgharbi.
He presented with epistaxis and hematemesis for which he consulted five health facilities in Kubeni and Nouakchott between January 27 and February 4, 2022.
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Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever is a widespread disease caused by a tick-borne virus (Nairovirus) from Bunyaviridae family. The CCHF virus causes severe epidemics of viral haemorrhagic fever, with a case fatality rate of 10 to 40%.
Animals become infected through the bite of infected ticks and the virus remains in their bloodstream for about a week after infection, allowing the tick-animal-tick cycle to continue when another tick bites. Although a number of tick genera are susceptible to infection with CCHF virus, ticks of the genus Hyalomme are the main vector.
The CCHF virus is transmitted to humans either through tick bites or through contact with blood or tissues of infected animals during and immediately after slaughter. The majority of cases have occurred in people involved in the livestock industry, such as agricultural workers, slaughterhouse workers and veterinarians. Human-to-human transmission is possible.